The foremost goal of treatment of gum diseases is to control infection. The type of treatment varies, according to the extent of gum disease. Any type of treatment requires the patient to keep good daily oral hygiene at home. Moreover, modifying certain behaviors, such as quitting tobacco use, might also be recommended as a way to get better treatment results.
- Scaling and Root Planing : Professional cleaning means scraping off the tartar from above and below the gum line of teeth, and Root planing gets rid of irregular spots on the tooth root where the germs collect, and helps remove bacteria that contribute to the gum diseases.
- Oral Hygiene Instructions – proper brushing, flossing, inter-dental brushing.
- Medications – are used to destroy the microbes that cause Periodontitis or hold back the destruction of the tooth’s attachment to the bone. In some cases, a dentist will recommend a mouth rinse containing a chemical called chlorhexidine to help control plaque deposition. There are also antibiotic gels, fibers or chips, which are directly applied to the infected pocket.
- Splinting – for mobile teeth
- Coronoplasty – for correcting any traumatic bite
- Curettage – Scraping away of the diseased gum tissue in the infected pocket, this allows the infected area to heal and gums to become firmer.
- Periodontal flap surgery – Surgery might be needed if inflammation and deep pockets remain after treatment with deep cleaning and medications. The flap surgery involves lifting back the gums and removing the tartar deposited in deep pockets. The gums are then sewn back in place so that the tissue fits snugly around the tooth. This method reduces the pocket and areas where bacteria grow and make it easier for the patient to keep the area clean.
- Bone grafts – used to restore bone lost due to Periodontitis. Small fragments of your own bone, synthetic bone, or donated bone are placed where bone was lost. These grafts serve as a platform for the re-growth of bone, which stabilizes the teeth.
- GTR (Guided Tissue Regeneration) – It stimulates bone and gum tissue growth. In combination with flap surgery, a small piece of mesh-like fabric is inserted between the bone and gum tissue. This keeps the gum tissue from growing into the area where the bone should be, allowing the bone and connective tissue to re-grow and support the teeth. Bone grafts may or may not be used in combination.
- Soft tissue grafts– reinforce thin gums to fill the space where the gums have receded.
- Bone (Osseous) Surgery – it is smoothening of shallow craters in the bone due to moderate or severe bone loss. During the flap surgery, the bone around the tooth is reshaped to decrease the craters, this makes it difficult for bacteria to gather and grow.
- Gingivectomy/Gingivoplasty – To correct gum contour